Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Structure of a Scientific Paper Essays - Philosophy Of Science

Structure of a Scientific Paper A scientific paper is made up of six parts; all need to be organized in a certain way and must use proper English. Experiments are used to prove or disprove hypotheses, and then the findings are reported in a scientific paper. The scientific paper can include other scientist work in it also but is must be referenced. They can also use other resources in such as excerpts from journals and articles of magazines and books. A scientific papers components are the abstract, introduction, materials, results, discussion, and acknowledgements. A scientific paper should be written in short logical sentences, using proper grammar and proper English. You should use past tense in the abstract, materials and results sections. You would also use past tense when referring to your experiment in the introduction and discussion. For your measurements you would need to use metric units because it is a universal measurement and much easier to convert to. When writing a scientific paper, scientist don't only use their own information and data, they can also use other scientist research and experiments to back up their own work or to make comparisons. You may also use letters, research, note articles, supplemental, article reviews and articles from biological magazines and other scientific researches. The first part of a scientific paper should be the abstract, which summarizes the question that your experiment is based upon. It should include your methods, results and you should also draw a conclusion in this section. It should be written after your paper is completed. The next part is the introduction, which should introduce the problems and questions in an observers view. It should include a statement to encompass your hypothesis. The third component of a scientific paper is the materials section. It should discuss the when, where, and how your experiment was done. It should include the specific dates, times and location the experiments took place. It should state how the experiment was set up and how you carried it out and how many trials you did. The Results is the next part of the paper, it should explain the data you collected, and you can't interpret your data. You should use tables or charts to show your data and provide a title and caption describing any trends, di fferences you notice in the data. You shouldn't use both tables and a written description of your data; just write captions discussing your results. The next session would be the discussions, here you can interpret your data, you should examine the results and show whether the results of the experiment supported your hypothesis. Show whether the experiment answered your question and if any new questions came up. The final part of you scientific paper should be the acknowledgements, it should recognize the contributors of your paper whether they gave you advise, supplied you with equipment or assisted you. However if they contributed significantly they should be written as authors, you should also cite the authors you referred to throughout your paper. The citing should be in alphabetic order of the author's name. A scientific paper must be organized and is very complex. It must include all six components or it will be rejected and not considered a scientific paper. It should use correct grammar and use metric units for the measurements. It should make sense to and be very clear to understand for anyone. It must show whether the experiment was a success or failure and state why. Save Submit

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Moment that Changed My Life Essay Example For Students

The Moment that Changed My Life Essay Like every family, my family has always had ups and downs, happiness and sorrow. My family has always been united and a whole. Unlike other unfortunate children, my parents are together and have always shown my siblings and I appreciation. My parents have always been very traditional and have taught us manners and how to be talented and educated children. But most importantly, theyve taught us that family always comes first over anything. A day after my fourteenth birthday, my family and I were getting ready to go to Mexico for winter break. We were all excited to finally go to Mexico and be with our family members for the holidays. However, the mood in my house changed in an instant. My mom has always been home and there for us when we need her. She has always been less strict and firm than my dad, but she still demands respect. Both my mom and dad have given us full trust in return for our respect and behavior. But at that moment, my eldest sister forgot everything theyd taught us. My eldest sister was twenty-one at the time. She went to Cal State Fullerton, was in her last year of college, and was said to be a mature adult. We will write a custom essay on The Moment that Changed My Life specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now However, my parents found out that she was lying to them. I remember the date being December 19 when the truth was revealed. After months of lies, my parents found out that my sister was going out with a man who would bring no benefits into her life. The man she was seeing had no education above high school, was divorced, and had a daughter. The problem was that back in May my parents had already prohibited her from seeing him anymore. She apologized to my parents and promised that she would end her relationship. Seven months passed by and apparently she didnt. For my parents, sister, and I, her lie was a major offense because weve always been there for each other, no matter what. Part of the problem was the guy she was seeing, but what really felt like a betrayal was that she threw away all the trust we had as a family. That night of December 19, when my parents found out, they had mixed emotions. They were heartbroken, yet very angry. My dads first reaction was to give her the option of leaving the house or ending her relationship. Her decision was very shocking for me, but she decided to leave immediately after the argument. I didnt think that my dads decision was wrong. I actually respected his opinion because I felt like she took for granted what my parents had done for us throughout the years. After my sister left, we had a conversation as a family. We agreed and realized that it was her decision. My dad said that he was very upset and disappointed, but that he wouldnt give up on my youngest sister and I. As a family, we agreed that we had to keep on going and move on. However, she was still part of our family and had our blood. Everyone makes a mistake at some point in life and we couldnt turn our back on her even after her mistake. About three days after she departed, one of her best friends called to let us know that she was fine and now living with the same guy. After the argument or dilemma, we didnt have much enthusiasm to go to Mexico anymore, but my mom persuaded us to go. She insisted that it would be an extraordinary way to forget about the problem for a moment. The trip was awkward because everyone asked about my sister. My parents didnt want the problem to be known, so they lied and said that she was working and couldnt go. .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f , .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .postImageUrl , .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f , .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f:hover , .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f:visited , .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f:active { border:0!important; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f:active , .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub7ad5553d90eede579ddaae5e4988c2f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Character Analysis: The Darker Face of the Earth EssayOur break in Mexico was an unforgettable experience and I am thankful that my dad accepted my moms recommendation. When we returned from our trip, we heard nothing from or about her. A year has passed by since the dilemma and she is barely starting to talk to my parents. My parents and my youngest sister are trying to get along with her again. I, on the other hand, am not so sure about how I feel. I sometimes want to take my dads advice and talk to her again, but sometimes I dont. Sometimes I feel rage and anger because she preferred someone, who tomorrow will probably not be there, over her own blood. I miss her, I really do, she was my sister, my role model, and my partner in crime. But she didnt care that she was everything for me or that I gave her all my trust. Sometimes I think about all this and dont know if I should care or not. I would love for everything to be back to normal, but she was the reason for the days I saw my family shed tears, for the loss of hope in my life, and most importantly for me, losing trust in everyone. This moment in my life has been probably the worse of all. My sisters decisions have affected me. Seeing my family suffer the way they did is an experience I dont want to relive. On the bright side though, I did learn an important lesson. To begin with, I learned to appreciate what our parents do for us. I also learned to always take in mind what theyve been through to be where they are for us today. This moment also helped me realize that family is more important than I used to think. We need to appreciate them and grab on to them everyday of our lives. At the end of the day, family is the only thing that will be next to you until the end.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Life Among The Nacirema

Professor Horace Miner first brought the Nacirema of Asu to the attention of anthropologists in the 1950’s. They are a North American group that lives between the Canadian Cree, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles. Some say that their people are on the road to self-destruction because of their key values and beliefs, other say they still have along way to go; regardless, the society is filled with rich, sometimes shocking, customs and strange magical rituals that have fascinated anthropologists for years. Of course one's beauty is determined by how their body image is perceived by others. The Nacirema take this one step further. As Miner said: "The fundamental belief underlying the whole system appears to be that the human body is ugly." A main philosophy of the Nacirema is that the human body is debilitated and unsightly. They believe that it has a tendency to become abnormal and diseased if the correct rituals are not preformed daily. The Nacirema are convinced that man is trapped inside of the suffering material body and each person must free themselves with the ceremonial traditions. These include elaborate daily rituals that the person must perform, for instance the rituals of the shrine room. (Which I will discuss later on.) If someone has a body that is considered ugly, or over or under weight the Nacirema often conclude it is due to a mistake in that persons rituals. Therefore the person deserved to be disfigured and they are deemed an outcaste. There are few cases where an unsightly or flawed person is allowed to become one with the normal community. About 5% of the population fast to the point of starvation (sometimes to their own death)They do this as an effort to mutilate the bodies appearance. However, even if the are not excepted by the group, most people with ugliness in their bodies form bonds, friendships, and communities with each other. If a â€Å"normal† person joins the outcastes, he must assum... Free Essays on Life Among The Nacirema Free Essays on Life Among The Nacirema Professor Horace Miner first brought the Nacirema of Asu to the attention of anthropologists in the 1950’s. They are a North American group that lives between the Canadian Cree, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles. Some say that their people are on the road to self-destruction because of their key values and beliefs, other say they still have along way to go; regardless, the society is filled with rich, sometimes shocking, customs and strange magical rituals that have fascinated anthropologists for years. Of course one's beauty is determined by how their body image is perceived by others. The Nacirema take this one step further. As Miner said: "The fundamental belief underlying the whole system appears to be that the human body is ugly." A main philosophy of the Nacirema is that the human body is debilitated and unsightly. They believe that it has a tendency to become abnormal and diseased if the correct rituals are not preformed daily. The Nacirema are convinced that man is trapped inside of the suffering material body and each person must free themselves with the ceremonial traditions. These include elaborate daily rituals that the person must perform, for instance the rituals of the shrine room. (Which I will discuss later on.) If someone has a body that is considered ugly, or over or under weight the Nacirema often conclude it is due to a mistake in that persons rituals. Therefore the person deserved to be disfigured and they are deemed an outcaste. There are few cases where an unsightly or flawed person is allowed to become one with the normal community. About 5% of the population fast to the point of starvation (sometimes to their own death)They do this as an effort to mutilate the bodies appearance. However, even if the are not excepted by the group, most people with ugliness in their bodies form bonds, friendships, and communities with each other. If a â€Å"normal† person joins the outcastes, he must assum...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Supply Chain Management in the Argri Foods Sector within UK and Research Paper

Supply Chain Management in the Argri Foods Sector within UK and Northern Ireland - Research Paper Example Over the past few years, companies having been focusing on reducing the number of suppliers that they have so as to harness effective relationships that is build more on collaboration (Ponce-Cueto, Garcia-Sanchez, and Ortega-Mier, 2010: 111). Indeed supplier relationship which had in the past been ignored is presently growing to be an influential aspect of the retail supply chain and businesses as well. Lintukangas and Kahkonen (2010:107) show that supplier relationship which essential in connecting a business to the supplier network, is critical in increasing a firm’s competitiveness as the company is able to exploit synergies from such relationships. This increases the effectiveness of supplier relationship management thereby increasing business performance. Such views are also shared by Jiang, Henneberg and Naude (2012) who note that supplier relationship management which thrive in trusting and dependent environments are critical for the enhancing business objectives where the quality of such relationships determine level of trust. Problem Statement Though there have a wide array of research on how best to manage relationships within the supply in order to enhance the performance of an organizational (Olurunniwo et al, 2011; Leeman, 2010; Croxton et al, 2001), the evolving nature of the retail supply chain necessitates constant change in the way it is managed. Such changes that have over the recent past been impacting the supply chain include changes into multi-tier network of relationships, the increasing practice of outsourcing key supply chain processes within the retail sector and the impacts of the recession in the way the way that retailers carry their business and relate to the suppliers. This necessitates a study in this area into how such... This essay approves that in analyzing data in this research study, repeated themes and ideas gathered from the interview answers will be identified in order to give meaning to the data collected. The data gotten will be constantly compared both with the reviewed literature and with other respondent’s answers in order to determine a pattern and meaning. Common elements within the smaller retailers will also be analysed and identified in order to understand what these have in common, while common elements, themes and ideas from the large retailers will also be analysed in order to be able to understand what these share. This report makes a conclusion that it is not possible to explore and reach out to all the retail supply players and to relevant business entities since there are quite many businesses with different business operations. This follows the fact that the research focuses on retail supply chain which is crowded with diverse businesses. The research will therefore have some bias in a way as regards reaching out to particular relevant businesses. In addition, the research will cover only one specific geographic region and therefore may not be representative of all geographic regions and especially the global environment. In addition, getting access to some executives in some companies may need a lot of dedicated efforts in order to get an appointment set. Though the study is limited by these constraints, the results could have important practical implications to the retail industry.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The beginning of Modernization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The beginning of Modernization - Essay Example In addition, railroads improved the transport of goods and people, which reduced operational costs and boosted industrial growth. The effects of the Industrial Revolution are changes in work attitudes (i.e. use of rules system to impose new work schedules that changed laidback work attitudes into a more productive-schedule-based thinking), population growth, urbanization (i.e. growth of cities), new social classes (i.e. industrial middle class and the proletariat or working class) and the growth Great Britain (which became the world’s richest and first industrial nation). The Second Industrial Revolution refers to the Technological Revolution. It is called the Technological Revolution because of innovations in electricity, communication, and steel production. The main ideas of Karl Marx are the concept of the class struggle and its predicted outcomes of open revolution and a classless society. These ideas shaped the politics and the union movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century through influencing socialism and the rise of socialist parties (e.g. in Germany) and trade unions (especially in Britain). Conservatism, liberalism and nationalism shaped Europe. Conservatism supported obedience to political authority, asserted that organized religion was essential to social order, and was reluctant to accept demands for civil liberties and nationalistic aspirations. Liberalism supported the protection of civil liberties through a Bill of Rights, separation of Church and State, right of peaceful opposition to the government, and right to vote and hold office for men of property. Nationalism believed that every nationality should have its own government. The causes of the revolutions in 1848 were dissatisfaction with their state of civil rights and freedoms and nationalistic endeavors. These revolutions failed because of internal factions within the revolutionaries themselves and support of other

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Task 2-5 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Task 2-5 - Assignment Example The availability of new and efficient technologies will facilitate the printing of the T-shirts at a relatively lower cost and consequently lead to provision of the T-shirts at a reason and affordable prices to the students. The digital printing of t-shirts with funny quotes and university logo will not only provide high profits to the university but will also boost promotion of the university thus reducing the cost of advertisements incurred in the normal promoting and advertisements (Mitchell, 2009) When students wear this T-shirts around, they will have the feeling of ownership of their university. This will attract other individuals who may be willing to join the university and thus increase the market share of the digital printed t-shirts though increased numbers of students in the university. Infrastructure; Identify the significant activities in executing the businesses value proposition that would be through creating an effective supply chain of t-shirts. Identify key resources of the venture to sustain the business this should the workforce and the finances. The university shall establish effective relationship with the students to continue buying the product. Offering; According to Alexander (2004), a business value proposition is the differentness from similar organizations in the industry. This provides added value in differing ways for example; product design, brand, price, cost reduction, accessibility, and convenience. The university will look it the factor to ensure client satisfaction. Cost Structure: This is most important monetary consequences while in operation, the university must adopt either cost driven or value driven cost structure. Based on the ability of students to consume the university must be able to produce products that are both of high quality while they are cost effective, this will ensure survival of the business. Visualize the capability

Friday, November 15, 2019

Effectiveness of Organizational Development Models

Effectiveness of Organizational Development Models This article shows the effectiveness of Organizational Development models in order with the example. In this article we have discuss the comparison of three OD models mentioning their effectiveness in order with example. The world is passing through the turbulent times. Companies are expanding their business, acquiring new enterprises, and going through significant changes, including outsourcing, downsizing, automation etc. Tomorrows world will be different from todays, calling for new organizational approaches. Organizations will need to be adapting to these changes market conditions and at the same time coping with the need for a renewing rather than reactive workforce. Organizations are never completely stagnant. External forces i.e. Government, Stockholders, Unions, Competitors, Suppliers, and Customers etc continuously affect the activities of the organization. Changing consumer lifestyles and technological breakthroughs all act on the organization to cause it to change. Many of these changes are forced upon the organization, whereas others are generated internally. Because change is occurring so rapidly, there is a need for new ways to manage it. Organizational Development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioral scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and intergroup relations in organization. (French and Bell, 1999). Organizational development (OD) is an application of behavioral science to organizational change. It consists of a wide array of theories, processes, and activities, all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations. OD focuses on carefully planned approaches to changing or improving organizational structures and processes, in an attempt maximize organizational effectiveness. Background of Study In present era of cut throat competition, globalization, erasing trade barriers, rapid innovation, advancement in new technology, reduction in product life cycle and huge investment requirements to get entry into industry increase the essence of formulating an effective strategy in an organization in order to gain a competitive edge in market place. It is utmost important for each and every organization to be consistently competitive at the market place in order to save organization from entropy and make it possible for organization to constantly grow through application of Organizational Development concepts. Strategy is a comprehensive plan to achieve organizational goals or strategy is a comprehensive master plan stating how the corporation/organization will achieve its mission and objectives. It is not only important for any firm to develop an effective organizational strategy but also proper implementation and control mechanism is very crucial for success. Organization strategy is the one of element among various elements that may require OD interventions if not effective. According to Burke-Litwin model, organization may require first order or second order change or may require both(First order and Second order changes). If OD interventions directed toward structure, systems, and management practice result in first order change, if interventions directed toward mission, strategy, leadership, and organizational culture then result in second order change (French and Bell, Jr, 1999). Companies today are exposed to much more rapid changes than they were decades ago. This development provides the reason to analyze approaches that help to overcome inflexible, conservatively-managed companies and lead change initiatives successfully. (Kotter, 1996). Organizational Development is planned change in an organizational context. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. Models and theories depict, in words or pictures, the important features of some phenomenon, describe those features as variables, and specify the relationships among the variables. (French and Bell, 1999). Corporate restructuring, strategies, and development models may be based on various factors viz. Human Resource Management, Financial revamping, International competitive market, post merger and acquisition etc. The globalization, commercialization, privatization, and deregulation have changed the whole scenario as such change has become significant factor in business survival. This has brought far-reaching changes in economic structures and patterns of organizations. The OD is getting increasing attention as such it plays a key role in the description of recent developments. The institutions private or public now realize the recent trends and prospects and have started giving priority to OD. These organizations now adapt and act OD at their workplace by redefining its role in promoting efficiency and economic growth. The organizations, particularly those without strong change element are in favor of encouraging the vigorous growth of OD in corporate governance. The organizations the y do not undertake measures to enhance their capabilities through planned change by employing OD risk not just being marginalized but also being completely bypassed in the new global order. The organizations those face severe competition today are completely dependent on behavioral interventions for organization improvement. Conceptual Understanding of the Organizational Development Organizational Development (OD) bridges an organizations need for continuity and its need for growth. It helps the organization change to meet the changing demands of its internal and external environments (Culbert Reisel, 1971). Organizational development is a theory and practice of bringing the planned change to organization. These changes are usually designed to address an organization problem or to help an organization prepare for future. It is the one method of quickly bringing change, which focus on human and social aspects of the organization as a way to improve organizations ability to adapt and solve problems. Organizational development is both a professional field of social action and an area of scientific inquiry. The practice of OD covers a wide spectrum of activities, with seemingly endless variations upon them. Team building with top corporate management, structural change in a municipality, and job enrichment in a manufacturing firm are all examples of OD. (Cummings and Worley, 2005). Different theorists have provided with their own definitions of organizational development. Some definitions are : Source Definition Porras and Robertson (1992) Organizational development is a set of behavioral science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members on-the-job behaviors. Cummings and Worley (1993) [OD is] a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving an organizations effectiveness. Burke (1994) Organizational development is planned process of change in an organizations culture through the utilization of behavioral science technologies, research, and theory. French and Bell (1999) Organizational development is a long-term effort, led and supported by top management, to improve an organizations visioning, empowerment, learning, and problem-solving processes, through an ongoing, collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioral science, including action research. The gist of above definitions is summarized below: Culture and processes are the key areas of the OD Specifically, OD encourages collaboration between organization top managers and staff members in managing culture and process. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Participation and involvement in problem solving and decision making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social system. OD practitioners are facilitators, collaborators, and co-learners with the client system. OD makes the client system effective so that the client systems solves its problem at their own and provide necessary coaching / teaching in order to enhance the knowledge and skill level. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. Attempting to create win-win solutions is standard practice in OD programs. In the 1970s, organization development evolved as separate field that applied the behavioral sciences in a process of planned organization-wide change, with the goal of increasing organization effectiveness. Today the concept has been enlarged to examine how people and groups can change to a learning organization culture in a complex and turbulent environment. Organization development is not a step-by-step procedure to solve a specific problem but a process of fundamental change in the human and social systems of the organization, including organization culture. It is a process in a sense that a process is an identifiable interrelated event moving toward some goal or end. Organization development is a journey, not a destination. It is an unfolding and evolving series of events. Every organization program is unique because every organization has unique problems and opportunities. Yet all organization development programs are identifiable flow of interrelated events moving over time to ward the goals of the organization improvement and individual development. Organization development is an organizational improvement strategy, which is about how people and organization function and how to get them to function better. The field is based on the knowledge from the behavioral science disciplines such as psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology, systems theory, organizational behavior, organization theory and management to create trust, open conformation of problems, employee empowerment and participation, knowledge and information sharing, the design of meaningful work, co-operation and co-ordination between groups and full use of human potential. Organizational Development can help groups and individuals improve various aspects of organizational life necessary for success, including culture, values, and systems and behavior. The goal of O.D. is to increase organizational effectiveness and organizational health, through planned interventions in the organizations processes, operations, and behavior. Most often, O.D. services are requested when an organization (or a unit within an organization) is undergoing a process of change. Organizational Development services can assist in having a positive impact on most, if not all, factors that contribute to high performance. These include: Accountability Team interactions Strategic planning Skill alignment Professional development strategies Effective use of technology Workplace climate Employee morale A primary goal of organization development is to optimize the system by ensuring that system elements are harmonious and congruent. When organization structure, strategy, culture, and processes are not aligned, performance suffers. Different organizations interventions focus on align the organization with environment demands. Organizations are examples of open systems, that is, system interacting with their environments. Many problems of organizations today emerge from rapid changes in environmental demands, threats and opportunities. The Growth and Relevance of OD: Organizations must settle themselves in increasingly complex and uncertain technological, economic, political, and cultural changes. The speedily changing conditions of last few years shown that the organizations are facing the unprecedented uncertainty and nothing short of a management revolution will save them. Globalization, information technology, and managerial innovation are the major trends which are shaping change in organizations. First: globalization is playing vital role is the organizational life cycle. Organization is growing in the changing markets and environments. New governments, new leadership, new markets, and new countries are emerging and creating a new global economy. Companies in Russia, China, Hong Kong etc. are the examples of globalization. Second: information technology has drastically changing the old business model and defining the new parameters of how knowledge is used, how work is performed and how to calculate the cost of doing business. Now the organizations are going for ERP, e-commerce, SAP etc., E-Trade, are among many recent entrants to the information economy, and the amount of business being conducted on the Internet is projected to grow at double-digit rates for well over ten years. Due to revolution in information technology, electronic data interchange, a state of the art information technology application, few years ago, is now considered as routine business practice. Due to this revolution, organizations moved towards downsizing and restructuring of the firms. Finally, information technology is changing how knowledge is used. Organization members now share the same key information that senior managers once used to control decision making. Ultimately, IT will generate new business models in which communication and information sharing is nearly free and easily accessible. Third: managerial innovation has responded to the globalization and information technology trends and has speed up their impact on organizations. New organizational forms, i.e. networks, virtual corporations etc, provide organizations with different ways of thinking about how the produced goods and deliver services. The strategic alliance, for example, has emerged as one of the indispensable tools in strategy implementation. No single organization, not even IBM, Mitsubishi, or General Electric, can control the environmental and market uncertainty it faces. New methods of change, such as downsizing and reengineering, have drastically reduced the size of organizations and increased their capacity, and new large group interventions have increased the speed with which organizational change can take place. OD practitioners, managers, and researchers argue that these forces not only are powerful in their own right but are interrelated. Organization development is the continuous process of improvement. As change is the continuous process so also to cope with such changes is necessary of organizations survive. As the time passes the new changes occur in the market dilemma. The organizations on their peak position need to maintain their peak position and continuously improve to provide better benefits to their customers. Timely they have to adapt new technology, enter in to new markets, beat the competition etc. The organization development is not only for the failure organization but the successful organization also adapt new technology and innovations to maintain their success. Organization may face different problems in their different departments like finance, management, marketing, production, sales and so on. So the OD consultant diagnoses these problems to provide solutions to that organization. Human resources our people may be a large fraction of our costs of doing business. They certainly can make the difference between organizational success and failure. We better know how to manage them. Changing nature of the workplace. Our workers today want feedback on their performance, a sense of accomplishment, feelings of value and worth, and commitment to social responsibility. They need to be more efficient, to improve their time management. And, of course, if we are to continue doing more work with less people, we need to make our processes more efficient. Global markets. Our environments are changing, and our organizations must also change to survive and prosper. We need to be more responsible to and develop closer partnerships with our customers. We must change to survive, and we argue that we should attack the problems, not the symptoms, in a systematic, planned, humane manner. Technological improvement: Organizations from time to time innovate and create new technology for better product development and management of organization. Because in era of competition the managers overall attention is toward the proper management and allocation of resources. Models of Organizational Development and its Effectiveness Organizations are facing continuous pressures due to change in global pace, economic and technological development and organization is making the same a feature of its life cycle. Every organization is going for development and directed at bringing about planned change to increase organizations effectiveness and efficiency. Managers, generally, initiate and implement the same with the help of an OD practitioner either from inside or outside of the organization. Organizations can use planned change to solve problems, to learn from experience, to adapt to external environmental changes, to improve performance, and to influence future changes. Organization Development (OD) covers all aspects of an organization; its functional scope is very vast as such it: Focuses on culture and processes Encourages collaboration between organization leadership and members in managing culture and process and makes it more efficient. Teams of various kinds are the target of OD. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Ensures participation and involvement in problem solving and decision making by all levels of the organization, which is hall mark of whole process. Also focuses on total systems change and views organizations as complex social systems. It leads to a development that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization as a whole. The OD consultants/ practitioners therefore plays an important and vital role as such they are facilitates, collaborates, and co-learners with the client system. At the outset OD consultants seeks top managements commitment and consent to initiate the process. The major events in the process then include: Sensing Diagnosing Planning Actions Evaluation Adjustments, and Repeating OD is an iterative process, it a journey not a destination. The goal of OD consultants is overcharging to make clients systems able to solve their problems through learning and teaching self-analytical methods. OD in fact is not one time process; rather it relies on action research model with extreme participation by client system members to bring sustainable growth. The knowledge base of OD is extensive, dynamic, and consonantly growing. Today the organizations prefer for holistic action plan as compare to linear or cyclic kind of interventions. The holistic approach presents a theory that the universe and especially nature should be viewed as interacting wholes rather than as distinct parts. This approach definitely caters to dynamic and most contemporary techniques for the planned change. There are numerous models and several recent theories those promises planned change. Few are highlighted below: Kurt Lewins Change Model Three stage theory of change was proposed by Kurt Lewin (founder of social psychology). Initially the theory was presented in 1947 and since then a lot of changes has been taken place in the original work. Actually there are various models of change which are based on the Kurt Lewin model. According to Kurt Lewin, change in organization is commonly referred to as  Unfreeze, Change, and Freeze. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. Kurt Lewin model is useful to frame a process of change for people which can easily understand. Although this theory got so much popularity but it has been criticized for being too simplistic. The detailed explanation of each stage of the model is given below: Stage 1: Unfreezing Unfreezing is the first stage of Lewins Change Model. This stage focuses on the need for change and it is the starting point of change process. This stage emphasizes the importance of change and helps in moving move away from our current comfort zone. Change will not occur unless and until we understand the urgency of change. The more we feel that change is necessary, the more urgent it is and vise versa. When it becomes evident that the organization requires a change then the next step is to identify the pros and cons associated with the implementation of change. For example it would be wise to proceed with the change if the pros outnumber the cons before you take any action. This is the basis of what Kurt Lewin called the Force Field Analysis. In field force analysis there are various factors related to the change. Some of the factors are in favor of change while others are opposing factors. A change cannot takes place unless the factors for change outweigh the factors against chan ge. In the Unfreezing stage a department or an entire business moves towards motivation for change. The Kurt Lewin Force Field Analysis is a helpful way to know this process and there are ample of thoughts of how this can be done. Stage 2: Change or Transition The second stage of Lewins Change Model is a process of transition which is the inner movement or journey we make in reaction to a change. In transition process the current states is unfrozen and movement is started towards the new state. Lewin argued that the second stage is often the hardest as people are unsure or even fearful. Basically in this stage people are not much aware about the benefits of change so they are in the process of learning about the changes and require time to understand. In this stage people scan the environment for new relevant information and try to identify new role model or mentor. People must have clear picture of the desired change so they dont lose sight of where they are heading. Using role models and allowing people to develop their own solutions also help to make the changes. Stage 3: Freezing (or Refreezing) The last stage of Lewins Change Model is freezing or refreezing. Once the change has been made, the next step is to freeze the change in order to establish stability. In this stage everything is going to settle down because people are in the process of accepting the new changes. Thus all the changes become new norms of the organization and people form new relationships. People will become comfortable with their routines but it will take time. Many people argue that there is no freezing because of dynamic environment in which things are changing very rapidly. Therefore there is always a continuous change and freezing has become a chaotic process in which great flexibility is demanded. In this way unfreezing for the next change might be easier. Lewins tried to reinforce the change and ensure that the desired change is accepted and maintained into the future. Reinforcement is very important because people tend to go back to doing what they are used to doing. Effectiveness of Kurt Lewins Model of Change: There is lot of real life examples of Kurt Lewins Change model. Example # 1 Continental Airline By applying the Kurt Lewins Change Model, Continental Airlines became Airline of the Year. The awards won by Continental so far include No. 1 Most Admired Global Airline from Fortune magazine (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009), Airline of the Year by OAG (2004, 2005), Best Trans-Atlantic and Trans-Pacific Business Class among U.S. airlines by Condà © Nast Traveler (1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006), and many others. [Video available at] Following is the another example of Kurt Lewins Change model: By doing attitude and satisfaction survey in the organization of all staff, management may come to know that the moral of the staff members is quite low and due to this risk of safety is quite high. This may hinder the change process. Similarly when information is being delivered to the field, but negative events are continuing to occur, this may reflect to the management that the message is not being heard and some required changes are in order. During the unfreezing step generally most of the staff members and management are willing to change. Kurt Lewins model suggests that one of the best ways to motivate people to change is to first get people see the need for change. Even when a change if for the persons long term health benefits such a ceasing a bad destructive habit, few people ever change because someone else tells them to. People generally need to see for themselves the need for change, for the catalyst to occur, to provoke them to unfreeze. Educating employees in regards the pressures for change is a first step. Organization leaders will begin to highlight gaps between current and desired states and put forward a vision as it needs to be. They further express the change in terms of particular outcomes that the organization desired from its operation and employees and their belief and confidence that these changes are possible. Before installing a new way of operations, the existing system needs to be broken down. At this stage, the goal of change agent is to create a strong reaction. To get the relevant staff management participated and examining the status quo. Create an environment on which people are forced to seek out a new and better way to do things. To re-set the normal order of things to new heights and standards. Tips to Unfreeze: Change is necessary because the businesses, market or product are changing. Analysis should be carried out that what is required. Build an understanding. Existing status quo will be required to break down before developing new way of doing things. Guide the people to know and understand that the old ways cannot continue and prior poor results will be used. Message should be passed on. What, who, when, where, why and how changes and improvements are necessary. Regular and frequent communication lines will be open with all employees. In order to eliminate the barriers of change, open door policy will be introduced with the aim to allow the employees to feel comfortable in sharing their concerns with the leadership. Remain open and honest with feedback to staff and continue to build solid interaction with the affected groups. Build a guiding partnership and support from management and understand and consider the needs of stakeholders. Transition During the transition phase we aim to shift or alter the behavior of the There are at least three planned change models that have been identified by Cummings and Worley (1997): Lewins change model, the action research model, and contemporary adaptations of action research. Kurt Lewins Change Model: Organizational change can occur at three levels- and, since the patterns of resistance to change are different for each, the patterns in each level require different change strategies and techniques. These levels involve: Changing the individuals who work in the organization-that is, their skills, values, attitudes, and eventually behavior-but making sure that such individual-behavior change is always regarded as instrumental to organizational change. Changing various organizational structures and systems-reward systems, reporting relationships, work design, and so on. Directly changing the organizational climate or interpersonal style-how open people are with each other, how conflict is managed, how decisions are made, and so on. Whatever the level involved, each of the three interventions is needed to make organizational members address the levels need for change, heighten their awareness of their own behavioral patterns, and make them more open to the change process. Stage 1: Unfreezing Three ways of unfreezing an organization are: i. Disconfirmation ii. Induction of guilt or anxiety iii. Creation of psychological safety Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation. Organizational members are not likely to embrace change unless they experience some need for it. Embracing change typically means that people are dissatisfied with the way things are quality is below standard, costs are too high, morale is too low, or direction is unclear, for example. Unfreezing involves reducing those forces maintaining the organizations behavior at its present level. Unfreezing is sometimes accomplished through a process of psychological disconfirmation. By introducing information that shows discrepancies between behaviors desired by organization members and those behaviors currently exhibited, members can be motivated to engage in change activities. Induction of guilt or anxiety. This is a matter of establishing a gap between what is current but not working well and some future goal that would make things work better. When people recognize a gap between what is and what would be better and more desirable, they will be motivated via guilt or anxiety to reduce the gap. But disconfirmation and induction are not enough to accomplish the unfreezing stage. One more process is necessary. Creation of psychological safety. To face disconfirmation, experience guilt or anxiety, and be able to act or move, people must believe that moving will not bring them humiliation or loss of self-esteem. People must still feel worthy, psychologically safe. The consultant must be concerned with people not losing face and must take car that when people admit that something is wrong they will not be punished or humiliated. Stage 2: Moving (Changing) The second step, movement, involves making the actual changes that will move the organization to another level of response. On the individual level, we would expect to see people behaving differently, perhaps demonstrating new skills or new supervisory practices. On the structural level, we would expect to see changes in actual organizational structures, reporting relationships, and reward systems that affect the way people do their work. On the climate or interpersonal level, we would expect to see behavior patterns that indicate greater interpersonal trust and openness and fewer dysfunctional interactions. There are two main processes for accomplishing this stage: Identification with a new role model Scanning the environment for new information Identification with a new role model, mentor, boss, or consultant to begin to see things from that other persons point of view. If we see another point of view operating in a person to whom we pay attention and respect, we